Report submitted by Mali

Le rapport national du Mali présente les lois qui encadrent le droit à l'éducation et précise les actions mises en œuvre aux points 61 à 69. Il dresse un portrait des difficultés rencontrées en matière de protection des droits de l'enfant (86, 90, 91, 92, 101). Les points 104 à 108 sont consacrés à la sensibilisation aux droits de l'homme.

61. Article 18 of the Constitution of Mali recognizes the right to education. The Outline Education Act, which provided for the incorporation of international juridical instruments relating to the right to education in domestic legislation, was adopted in 1999.


62. With a view to realizing this right the Government adopted a series of policies and measures which have led to tangible results.


63. It was in the context of these efforts that the Ten-year Education Development Programme (PRODEC) was adopted for the period 1998-2008.


64. PRODEC constitutes a response to the education-related recommendations contained in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The programme is supported by multilateral and bilateral technical and financial partners and is aimed at improving the design and planning of education and promoting major educational and pedagogical reforms and innovations.


65. PRODEC is being implemented through the Education Sector Investment Programme (PISE), the overall objective of which is to launch a comprehensive strategy to ensure fair and universal access to quality education and promote efficient management of the sector.


66. Implementation of PISE has led to significant progress in terms of an increase in overall basic education enrolment rates, improved quality of teaching and training and better management of the education sector.


67. The support provided by technical and financial partners for the building and installation of educational infrastructure has contributed greatly to the increase in enrolment rates and the improvement in the quality of teaching.


68. From 2002 to 2007, enrolment rates at the basic education level increased from 67 per cent to 77.6 per cent for the first cycle and from 30 per cent to 44.3 per cent for the second cycle.


69. Despite progress made over the past 10 years with regard to realization of the right to education, many problems and challenges still need to be addressed: a further increase in enrolment rates; development of education infrastructure, which is not keeping pace with the very high population growth rate; the very high student-to-teacher ratio; inequality and difference in opportunity between girls and boys; and lastly, uneven geographic distribution of schools. These factors adversely affect the quality of teaching and contribute to an overall decline in student performance and the quality of human resources.

86. Despite these efforts, the effects and legacy of certain traditional practices, the application of customary law in matters of succession, and certain provisions of the Marriage and Guardianship Code, in force since 1962, perpetuate discriminatory practices against women. For example, levirate and sororate marriages are still practised in traditional society, despite education and awarenessraising campaigns undertaken by the Government, civil society organizations and NGOs.

90. In spite of the criminalization of all forms of violence in the Criminal Code, acts of domestic violence against women and children still occur in Mali. The Government has therefore adopted a National Plan to Combat Violence against Women and Girls with a view to eliminating domestic violence. The implementation of the Plan, which covers the period 2006 to 2011, has led to encouraging results which must be consolidated by the adoption of a specific law on domestic violence.

91. In the area of the rights of the child, a child’s most basic right is the right to have his or her birth registered. The rate of birth registrations nevertheless remains too low, in particular in rural areas.

92. The increase in the availability of government services to the population as a result of decentralization, the registration of births free of charge and citizenship education campaigns have, however, led to an improvement in the situation..

101. Despite these measures, protecting children remains an enormous challenge. Malian attitudes towards child labour have traditionally been favourable, as work is viewed as a form of education or apprenticeship for children, which makes it difficult to fight against this scourge. Education and sensitization of the population are therefore important.

D. Raising public awareness of human rights

104. 104. A variety of actors are involved in promoting and protecting human rights through training, dissemination of human rights instruments and campaigns to raise awareness of human rights aimed at the general public and at the information, communication and media sectors.

105. The main function of the National Human Rights Commission is to contribute to the promotion and protection of human rights and to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. To that end, it conducts information, education and communication campaigns aimed at raising awareness among public officials and the general population. Similar campaigns are undertaken with a view to preventing torture.

106. To build national capacity in the area of human rights, Mali has launched, in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), a project for the promotion and protection of human rights (APPDH project). 

107. C107. This project furthers the promotion and protection of human rights by enhancing the capacity of government entities and non-governmental organizations to improve the human rights situation and strengthen the rule of law in Mali. The project’s strategies include awareness-raising and training..

108. The introduction of education on citizenship, democracy, human rights and peace in educational curricula is one of the approaches being used by the Government to raise public awareness and understanding of human rights and international humanitarian law. 

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